Monthly Archives: April 2014

The Pioneering Days of Multiple Master Fonts

Conrad Taylor ( recently came to our office to share his experience of publishing tools used before the desktop computer was commonly available. In his presentation he described some old typesetting machines, among them the Berthold Diatype. At this point, I recoiled in terror as dark memories surfaced of a time when I operated this machine, created by what I still regard as some of the most evil minds on the planet. This got me thinking about some of the important advances that have been made in type design technology.

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Today, our font developers use Multiple Master (MM) technology to create multi-weight font families. This process allows the designer to draw the extreme weights of a typeface, say Thin and ExtraBold. The designer can then interpolate any point in between, and relatively quickly achieve a large range of weights. The interpolated weights have to be manually optimised to ensure they perform exactly as intended, and the larger the difference between the extreme weights, the more manual work is required.


Interpolation helped our designers expand Aktiv Grotesk to a super family with 8 weights and 2 styles.

MM fonts were first pioneered by Adobe around 1992. It was a great idea that ultimately failed as a font format. Users barely understood how to use normal fonts on their Macintoshes at that point, and support by programs and printer drivers was erratic. However, it also provided opportunities for those of us who were tenacious.

In 1994, I was commissioned by Paul Luna at Oxford University Press to design a titling font for the Oxford Dictionaries, the Thesaurus and other publications in the same series. The aim was to have a typeface that could always be set at the same type size, irrespective of the length of title. MM fonts were the answer to the problem, and fortunately, Fontographer 4 had just been released allowing the creation of MM fonts.


Multiple Master fonts allowed the designers to optically match weights across different font sizes.

As I was working on the project, it became clear very quickly how buggy the implementation was. Over a period of about two weeks, I was in daily contact with Altsys, the developers of Fontographer, to provide test reports. The engineers would release a bug fix overnight, and in the morning I would dial up with my modem to download the latest update, a process that took several hours. Eventually, however, I had a reasonably stable version that allowed me to finish the font successfully.

The resulting typeface was a two-axis MM font, weight and width. It consisted of caps only, sufficient for the setting of the titles. When working with MM, it is important that a glyph in the various extremes – in this case four – has a design and digital compatibility. The number of nodes, their numbering and direction of digitisation must all match. Not doing so will result in some unexpected interpolations. Font developers now have automated tools to help them achieve this compatibility, but I had to manually ensure that all the glyphs across the four designs resulted in the same structure. This manual compatibility check had to be done not only across the glyph design, but also across kerning and other font related data. To say that it was a painful exercise is an understatement.


The Oxford Dictionary font, Bruno’s first ever Multiple Master, in development.


The Oxford Dictionary font, Bruno’s first ever Multiple Master, in development.

I think that this was the first custom MM font ever produced in Europe, and I’m proud of the result. It’s a nice typeface that fulfilled the brief. It was used for a number of years by OUP, but I guess once the MM format was no longer supported, the font disappeared back into the drawer. Creating it was a great learning experience and it felt like pioneer work.

Type Camp Chennai, India, 2014


In late February, Hanna Donker and Kalapi Gajjar, both Font Developers at Dalton Maag, attended Type Camp Chennai 2014. “Since 2007, Type Camp has held type camps in 8 countries on 5 continents and has helped hundreds of people at all levels of experience and knowledge to learn more about typography”.


Image courtesy of Daria Lanz

Here are Hanna’s reflections from the week:

Type Camp Chennai 2014 was an educational workshop led by Type Camp instructor, Shelley Gruendler, and held in the city formerly known as Madras, a city in South East India that contains roughly nine million people and which has a tropical climate and a very fast pace of life.

The camp dedicated a whole week to discussions, projects, visits, talks and workshops – all focused on Tamil and South Indic typography. It brought together a group of enthusiastic creatives from around the world with a shared interest in Indic type. We shared our knowledge and learned from each other throughout the week by collaborating on projects and presentations. And to be honest, the sharing went even further as we crammed 4 people into a tuktuk – which was obviously very cosy!

Type camp was an amazing opportunity to expand my expertise in South Indic scripts by learning about local lettering from sign painters and by seeing and feeling the historical and cultural context.

Visiting the ancient temples in Mamallapuram and seeing Grantha script engravings was quite special to me as it isn’t very common to come across. And when we made Kolams in the streets of Chennai, local woman joined the group by a mutual curiosity in each others worlds, which left us amazed and very humble.


Type Camp strengthened my understanding of the function and use of typography within the specific cultural context of South India. I also learned Tamil script through some amazing lectures from Rathna Ramanathan and Nia & Selvan Thandapani, and all the incredible sign painted logos in the streets of Mylapore neighborhood.

The colour, speed, food and smell of India all add up to an amazing experience. It was a wonderful journey and I don’t think I can thank Dalton Maag enough for this opportunity.

You can read Type Camp instructor, Shelley Gruendler’s blog of the week-long type camp and see some great pictures at